Analysis of Concrete Tensile Failure using Dynamic Particle Difference Method under High Loading Rates

Kyeong Hwan Kim, Young Cheol Yoon, Sang Ho Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


This study presents the use of the dynamic particle difference method (PDM) to analyze tensile failure in concrete subjected to high loading rates. In general, strong form-based meshfree methods suffer from limitations pertaining to the material modeling of concrete because concrete exhibits both softening and damage behaviors that initiate crack growth under an impact load. These methods are generally based on the direct discretization of the governing equations, such as Navier's equation, which involves second-order differentiation. However, conventional material models are based on the first-order derivatives of displacement. The newly developed dynamic PDM can effectively address the limitations of material modeling using a combination of first-order derivative approximations. This circumvents the requirement for high-order derivative approximations, which are essential in strong formulations, such as the finite difference method and point collocation method. The strain rate effect caused by an extremely high loading speed was successfully modeled by accurately reflecting the energy dissipations that result from the cohesive property of the concrete and brittle cracking. Although the developed method incorporates the elastic constitutive relation, it enables the effective modeling of these nonlinear effects. In addition, it can reduce the computational effort. The proportional damping algorithm simulates the effect of velocity in the equation of motion and the cohesion effect in the concrete material. The damage model and the visibility criterion adequately handle crack initiation and propagation in the concrete member. Furthermore, it is noteworthy that the final discrete forms of the dynamic PDM are similar to the integrands of the weak form in the conventional finite element formulation. We ascertained that the stiffness and mass proportional damping effects are related to the inertia and strain of the material, respectively. It was confirmed that the location and direction of crack propagation in concrete varied with the strain rate. Hence, the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method were successfully verified by simulation, and the strain-rate dependency of concrete fracture was efficiently simulated using the proposed method.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103802
JournalInternational Journal of Impact Engineering
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Apr

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF- 2017R1A1A1A05001196)

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier Ltd

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Automotive Engineering
  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Ocean Engineering
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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