We designed this study to test the sensitivities of cytology, the nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP22) assay, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in the early detection of urothelial carcinoma, and to identify mtDNA alterations in urinary epithelial cells. We collected 41 urine samples and 26 corresponding peripheral blood samples from patients with clinically suspected urothelial carcinoma. The FISH and NMP22 assays detected 92.1% of the cancers, and cytology detected 60.5%. In the low-grade group, NMP22 and FISH analyses were more sensitive than cytology, but in the high-grade group, all three methods showed approximately 90% sensitivity. Overall, the FISH and NMP22, or FISH and cytology assays combined detected 97.4% of cancers, while cytology with NMP22 detected 92.1%. In the low-grade group, the sensitivity of the three methods combined was above 80%, but in high-grade group, the combined sensitivity was approximately 100%. In the mtDNA control region, we detected characteristic heteroplasmic mtDNA substitution mutations in 1 patient and a mtDNA length heteroplasmic mutation in 303 polyC or 16184 poly C in 20 patients. Overall, urothelial carcinoma-specific mtDNA mutations were observed in 20 of the 26 patients (76.9%). The average mtDNA copy numbers in urine samples and corresponding peripheral blood samples (83.45 ± 60.36 and 39.0 ± 24.38, respectively) (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) differed significantly (P < 0.001). The mtDNA copy numbers in the urine samples from patients with high-grade and low-grade tumors (81.83 ± 67.78 and 86.49 ± 46.69, respectively) did not differ significantly (P = 0.589). In conclusion, the FISH assay showed the highest sensitivity for detecting low-grade urothelial carcinoma, and mtDNA copy numbers in urine samples were higher than those in the corresponding peripheral blood samples. The frequency of mtDNA mutations in the D-loop region in patients with cancer was approximately 80% in our study. This report further supports the significance of genetic alteration in urothelial carcinoma and the clinical utility of the FISH, mtDNA quantitation polymerase chain reaction, mtDNA sequencing, and capillary electrophoresis for this purpose.
|Number of pages||11|
|Journal||Cancer genetics and cytogenetics|
|Publication status||Published - 2010 Apr|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank G.S. Kwak and J.Y. Kang for technical support in FISH analysis and their work in the cytogenetic laboratory at Severance Hospital of Yonsei University Medical Center. This work was supported by a faculty research grant from Yonsei University College of Medicine (grant 6-2007-0107 ).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cancer Research