Analysis of manganese smelting in steelmaking

D. J. Min, R. J. Fruehan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Manganese is added to most grades of steel in the ladle as ferromanganese to improve the mechanical properties of the steel. After steelmaking, slag-metal equilibrium with respect to Mn is attained with the final Mn levels typically being 0.1 to 0.3 percent. It is theoretically possible to provide significant amounts of Mn to steel by adding manganese ore during steelmaking, for example in a BOF or Q-BOP, and smelting it using principles similar to bath smelting for producing iron. An energy and materials computer program was developed to analyze the process. The effect of the FeO content, basicity and amount of the slag on the process efficiency was determined. For example, for B = 4, %FeO = 15 percent and 100 kg/t of slag, 20 kg of ore will increase the residual Mn to over 0.65 percent from the normal level of 0.15 percent. The decrease in scrap melting, increased post combustion or fuel addition (coke or coal) required to supply the energy for reduction are given. The addition of manganese ore to an electric furnace and blast furnace is also analyzed. A simple economic model indicates that the process may be more economical, in some circumstances, than adding FeMn to the ladle with savings of up to $1 to 2/t of steel possible.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)47-52
Number of pages6
JournalTransactions of the Iron and Steel Society of AIME
Volume13
Publication statusPublished - 1992 Dec 1

Fingerprint

Steelmaking
Smelting
Manganese
Slags
Ores
Steel
Electric furnaces
Alkalinity
Blast furnaces
Coke
Computer program listings
Melting
Coal
Iron
Mechanical properties
Economics
Metals

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Engineering(all)

Cite this

@article{fb660a1cfc2a43caab70e88c95bf8776,
title = "Analysis of manganese smelting in steelmaking",
abstract = "Manganese is added to most grades of steel in the ladle as ferromanganese to improve the mechanical properties of the steel. After steelmaking, slag-metal equilibrium with respect to Mn is attained with the final Mn levels typically being 0.1 to 0.3 percent. It is theoretically possible to provide significant amounts of Mn to steel by adding manganese ore during steelmaking, for example in a BOF or Q-BOP, and smelting it using principles similar to bath smelting for producing iron. An energy and materials computer program was developed to analyze the process. The effect of the FeO content, basicity and amount of the slag on the process efficiency was determined. For example, for B = 4, {\%}FeO = 15 percent and 100 kg/t of slag, 20 kg of ore will increase the residual Mn to over 0.65 percent from the normal level of 0.15 percent. The decrease in scrap melting, increased post combustion or fuel addition (coke or coal) required to supply the energy for reduction are given. The addition of manganese ore to an electric furnace and blast furnace is also analyzed. A simple economic model indicates that the process may be more economical, in some circumstances, than adding FeMn to the ladle with savings of up to $1 to 2/t of steel possible.",
author = "Min, {D. J.} and Fruehan, {R. J.}",
year = "1992",
month = "12",
day = "1",
language = "English",
volume = "13",
pages = "47--52",
journal = "Transactions of the Iron and Steel Society of AIME",
issn = "0737-0059",

}

Analysis of manganese smelting in steelmaking. / Min, D. J.; Fruehan, R. J.

In: Transactions of the Iron and Steel Society of AIME, Vol. 13, 01.12.1992, p. 47-52.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Analysis of manganese smelting in steelmaking

AU - Min, D. J.

AU - Fruehan, R. J.

PY - 1992/12/1

Y1 - 1992/12/1

N2 - Manganese is added to most grades of steel in the ladle as ferromanganese to improve the mechanical properties of the steel. After steelmaking, slag-metal equilibrium with respect to Mn is attained with the final Mn levels typically being 0.1 to 0.3 percent. It is theoretically possible to provide significant amounts of Mn to steel by adding manganese ore during steelmaking, for example in a BOF or Q-BOP, and smelting it using principles similar to bath smelting for producing iron. An energy and materials computer program was developed to analyze the process. The effect of the FeO content, basicity and amount of the slag on the process efficiency was determined. For example, for B = 4, %FeO = 15 percent and 100 kg/t of slag, 20 kg of ore will increase the residual Mn to over 0.65 percent from the normal level of 0.15 percent. The decrease in scrap melting, increased post combustion or fuel addition (coke or coal) required to supply the energy for reduction are given. The addition of manganese ore to an electric furnace and blast furnace is also analyzed. A simple economic model indicates that the process may be more economical, in some circumstances, than adding FeMn to the ladle with savings of up to $1 to 2/t of steel possible.

AB - Manganese is added to most grades of steel in the ladle as ferromanganese to improve the mechanical properties of the steel. After steelmaking, slag-metal equilibrium with respect to Mn is attained with the final Mn levels typically being 0.1 to 0.3 percent. It is theoretically possible to provide significant amounts of Mn to steel by adding manganese ore during steelmaking, for example in a BOF or Q-BOP, and smelting it using principles similar to bath smelting for producing iron. An energy and materials computer program was developed to analyze the process. The effect of the FeO content, basicity and amount of the slag on the process efficiency was determined. For example, for B = 4, %FeO = 15 percent and 100 kg/t of slag, 20 kg of ore will increase the residual Mn to over 0.65 percent from the normal level of 0.15 percent. The decrease in scrap melting, increased post combustion or fuel addition (coke or coal) required to supply the energy for reduction are given. The addition of manganese ore to an electric furnace and blast furnace is also analyzed. A simple economic model indicates that the process may be more economical, in some circumstances, than adding FeMn to the ladle with savings of up to $1 to 2/t of steel possible.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0026981149&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0026981149&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 13

SP - 47

EP - 52

JO - Transactions of the Iron and Steel Society of AIME

JF - Transactions of the Iron and Steel Society of AIME

SN - 0737-0059

ER -