Anatomical consideration of deep calf veins: application to catheter-directed thrombolysis

Kyu Ho Yi, Jong Jin Lee, Hye Won Hur, Hee Jin Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: An antegrade approach is frequently used in catheter-directed thrombolysis to remove deep-vein thrombosis. However, the antegrade approach is difficult when accessing veins with small diameters; therefore, understanding the variation of deep calf vein is important. Methods: This study measured the diameters and surface areas of the proximal and distal posterior tibial vein, peroneal vein, and anterior tibial vein to determine which are preferable for venous access. This study dissected 132 legs from Korean and Thai cadavers. The proximal and distal posterior tibial vein, peroneal vein, and anterior tibial vein were scanned and measured. Results: The mean diameter and surface area were largest for the proximal tibial vein, at 6.34 mm and 0.312 cm2, respectively, followed by the anterior tibial vein (5.22 mm and 0.213 cm2), distal posterior tibial vein (3.29 mm and 0.091 cm2), and peroneal vein (3.43 mm and 0.081 cm2). The proximal posterior tibial vein and anterior tibial vein have large diameters and surface areas, which make them ideal for applying an antegrade approach in catheter-directed thrombolysis. Conclusions: The distal posterior tibial vein and peroneal vein are not recommended due to their smaller surface areas and also the anatomical variations therein.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2071-2076
Number of pages6
JournalSurgical and Radiologic Anatomy
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Dec

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors sincerely thank those who donated their bodies to science so that anatomical research could be performed. Results from such research can potentially increase mankind's overall knowledge that can then improve patient care. Therefore, these donors and their families deserve our highest gratitude. The authors thank Eun-Byul Yi from Eonbuk elementary school for illustrations. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (MSIP) (NRF-2019R1C1C1010776).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag France SAS, part of Springer Nature.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Anatomy
  • Surgery
  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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