When botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is injected to treat glabellar frown lines, the corrugator supercilia muscle (CSM) and procerus muscles are the main targets. Although there have been many studies on the treatment of glabellar frown lines, no study has confirmed the dynamic movement under ultrasonography (US). This study examined and evaluated dynamic muscle movements under US, thereby providing more effective BoNT injection guidelines for glabellar frowning. Glabellar frowning was categorized as either Type A or B. Type A is the general frowning pattern in which vertical wrinkles are made by contracting the CSM and procerus muscles (81%, n = 13). On US images, the procerus muscle thickens and the bilateral CSMs contract. Type B is an upward frowning pattern demonstrating upward elevation of vertical wrinkles due to hyperactive contraction of the frontalis muscle during frowning (19%, n = 3). On US images, the hypoechoic frontalis muscle thickens, forming horizontal forehead lines. After BoNT injection into the CSM and frontalis muscle but not the procerus muscle, Type B patterns showed improvements in the vertical crease and horizontal forehead line. Both types showed improvement in glabellar frown lines after conventional injection, but the horizontal forehead line did not improve in Type B. Type B wrinkles improved after additional injections into the frontalis muscle. This study provided novel anatomical findings related to the injection of glabellar frown lines with BoNT. Preliminary analysis and optimized procedures using US will enable more effective and safer injections.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korea government (No. NRF-2020R1A2B5B01002238).
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis