Ankle instability patients exhibit altered muscle activation of lower extremity and ground reaction force during landing: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Hyung Gyu Jeon, Sae Yong Lee, Sung Eun Park, Sunghe Ha

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


This review aimed to investigate characteristics of muscle activation and ground reaction force (GRF) patterns in patients with ankle instability (AI). Relevant studies were sourced from PubMed, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science through December 2019 for case-control study in any laboratory setting. Inclusion criteria for study selection were (1) subjects with chronic, func-tional, or mechanical instability or recurrent ankle sprains; (2) pri-mary outcomes consisted of muscle activation of the lower extremity and GRF during landing; and (3) peer-reviewed articles with full text available, including mean, standard deviation, and sample size, to enable data reanalysis. We evaluated four variables related to landing task: (1) muscle activation of the lower extremity before landing, (2) muscle activation of the lower extremity during landing, (3) magnitude of GRF, and (4) time to peak GRF. The effect size using standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for these variables to make comparisons across studies. Patients with AI had a lower activation of peroneal muscles before landing (SMD =-0.63, p < 0.001, CI =-0.95 to-0.31), greater peak vertical GRF (SMD = 0.21, p = 0.03, CI = 0.01 to 0.40), and shorter time to peak vertical GRF (SMD =-0.51, p < 0.001, CI =-0.72 to-0.29) than those of normal subjects during landing. There was no significant difference in other muscle activation and GRF components between the patients with AI and normal subjects (p > 0.05). Altered muscle activation and GRF before and during landing in AI cases may contribute to both recurrent ankle and ACL injuries and degenerative change of articular.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)373-390
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Sports Science and Medicine
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to thank Institute of Convergence Science (ICONS) and the International Olympic Committee Research Centre Korea for Prevention of Injury and Protection Athlete Health supported by the International Olympic Committee (IOC). The experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The authors have no conflict of interest to declare. The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are not publicly available, but are available from the corresponding author who was an organizer of the study.

Publisher Copyright:
© Journal of Sports Science and Medicine.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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