Annealing-free fabrication of highly oxidation-resistive copper nanowire composite conductors for photovoltaics

Yulim Won, Areum Kim, Donggyu Lee, Wooseok Yang, Kyoohee Woo, Sunho Jeong, Jooho Moon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

149 Citations (Scopus)


Copper nanowire (CuNW)-network film is a promising alternative to the conventional indium tin oxide (ITO) as a transparent conductor. However, thermal instability and the ease of oxidation hinder the practical applications of CuNW films. We present oxidation-resistive CuNW-based composite electrodes that are highly transparent, conductive and flexible. Lactic acid treatment effectively removes both the organic capping molecule and the surface oxide/hydroxide from the CuNWs, allowing direct contact between the nanowires. This chemical approach enables the fabrication of transparent electrodes with excellent properties (19.8Ωsq-1and 88.7% at 550 nm) at room temperature without any atmospheric control. Furthermore, the embedded structure of CuNWs with Al-doped ZnO (AZO) dramatically improves the thermal stability and oxidation resistance of CuNWs. These AZO/CuNW/AZO composite electrodes exhibit high transparency (83.9% at 550 nm) and low sheet resistance (35.9Ωsq-1), maintaining these properties even with a bending number of 1280 under a bending radius of 2.5 mm. When implemented in a Cu(In1-x,Gax)(S,Se) 2 thin-film solar cell, this composite electrode demonstrated substantial potential as a low-cost (Ag-, In-free), high performance transparent electrode, comparable to a conventional sputtered ITO-based solar cell.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere105
JournalNPG Asia Materials
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Jun

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by a National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP; No. 2012R1A3A2026417) and the Basic Research Laboratory (BRL) Program (No. 2011-8-2048). It was also partially supported by the third Stage of Brain Korea 21 Plus Project.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Modelling and Simulation
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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