Anti-oxidative and immunologic effects of the Korea red ginseng (KRG; Panax ginseng) and urushiol (Rhus vernicifera Stokes) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were evaluated. Forty-five rats (five Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka and 40 Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty [OLETF] rats) received chew diets for 10. months; after this period. The OLETF rats were divided into the following four groups according to diet for 2. months: NAFLD (chew), KRG (chew. +. KRG [200. mg/kg/day]), urushiol (chew. +. urushiol [0.5. mg/kg/day]), and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) (chew. +. UDCA [15. mg/kg/day]) groups. Liver function, lipid profiles and anti-oxidant activity of liver and serum, natural killer (NK) cell activity, and pathology were compared. In KRG and urushiol groups, the level of serum triglyceride ([302.0. ±. 70.4 and 275.2. ±. 63.8] vs. 527.7. ±. 153.3. mg/dL) were lower compared with that of NAFLD group (p<. 0.05). The levels of HDL-cholesterol (liver tissue: [4.8. ±. 0.2 and 4.8. ±. 0.5] vs. 4.2. ±. 0.2. mg/g) and NK cell activity ([3485. ±. 910 and 3559. ±. 910] vs. 2486. ±. 619 counts) were significantly higher than those of the NAFLD group (p<. 0.001). Inflammation with neutrophil infiltration was observed in only two rats in the NAFLD group. These results suggest that 2. months of oral KRG or urushiol administration improves lipid profiles and stimulates NK cell activity, while inhibiting steatohepatitis in OLEFT rats.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was partly supported by a grant from the Korea Society of Ginseng funded by Korea Ginseng Corporation, by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2012–0007552) by a grant of the Korea Healthcare technology R&D Project, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Republic of Korea. (A102065), and by the Medical Center Research funded by the Hallym University (01-2010-01).
Rats were supported by the Ostsuka company (Ostuka, Inc., Tokushima, Japan).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Food Science