The nanotubular surface of titanium implants is known to have superior osteogenic activity but is also vulnerable to failure because of induced bacterial attachment and consequent secondary infection. Here, the problem was attempted to be solved by depositing nanosized tetracycline (TC)-loaded particles in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) on titania nanotubes (TNTs) using the electrospray deposition method. The antibacterial effect of the newly formed TNT surface was considered using the common pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Maintenance of the biocompatibility and osteogenic characteristics of TNTs has been tested through cytotoxicity tests and osteogenic gene expression/extra-cellular matrix mineralization, respectively. The results showed that TNTs were successfully formed by anodization, and the characterization of TC deposited on the TNTs was controlled by varying the spraying parameters such as particle size and coating time. The TC nanoparticle-coated TNTs showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and biocompatibility with MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts, while the osteogenic activity of the TNT structure was preserved, as demonstrated by osteocalcin and osteopontin gene expression, as well as Alizarin red staining. Hence, this study concluded that the electrosprayed TC coating of TNTs is a simple and effective method for the formation of bactericidal implants that can maintain osteogenic activity.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by the Yonsei University College of Dentistry (6-2019-0021).
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Materials Science(all)