This study evaluated the antibacterial effects of a natural Curcuma xanthorrhiza extract (Xan) on a Streptococcus mutans biofilm by examining the bactericidal activity, inhibition of acidogenesis and morphological alteration. Xan was obtained from the roots of a medicinal plant in Indonesia, which has shown selective antibacterial effects on planktonic S. mutans. S. mutans biofilms were formed on slide glass over a 72 h period and treated with the following compounds for 5, 30, and 60 min: saline, 1% DMSO, 2 mg/ml chlorhexidine (CHX), and 0.1 mg/ml Xan. The Xan group exposed for 5 and 30 min showed significantly fewer colony forming units (CFU, 57.6 and 97.3%, respectively) than those exposed to 1% DMSO, the negative control group (P<0.05). These CFU were similar in number to those slides exposed to CHX, the positive control group. Xan showed similar bactericidal effect to that of CHX but the dose of Xan was one twentieth that of CHX. In addition, the biofilms treated with Xan and CHX maintained a neutral pH for 4 h, which indicates that Xan and CHX inhibit acid production. Scanning electron microscopy showed morphological changes in the cell wall and membrane of the Xan-treated biofilms; an uneven surface and a deformation in contour. Overall, natural Xan has strong bactericidal activity, inhibitory effects on acidogenesis, and alters the microstructure of S. mutans biofilm. In conclusion, Xan has potential in anti-S. mutans therapy for the prevention of dental caries.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology