The pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-1β upregulate TNF-α-stimulated gene 6 (TSG-6); however, current knowledge about the optimal conditions for TSG-6 expression in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is limited. Here, we investigated whether TSG-6 expression varies depending on the polarization state of macrophages co-cultured with adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) and analyzed the optimal conditions for TSG-6 expression in ASCs. TSG-6 expression increased in ASCs co-cultured with M0, M1, and M2 macrophages indirectly; among them, M1 macrophages resulted in the highest increase in TSG-6 expression in ASCs. TSG-6 expression in ASCs dramatically increased by combination (but not single) treatment of TNF-α, IL-1β, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1/3 was observed in response to IFN-γ and LPS treatment but not TNF-α and/or IL-1β. STAT1/3 activation synergistically increased TNF-α/IL-1β-dependent TSG-6 expression, and JAK inhibitors suppressed TSG-6 expression both in ASCs and macrophages. In LX-2 hepatic stellate cells, TSG-6 inhibited TGF-β-induced Smad3 phosphorylation, resulting in decreased α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) expression. Moreover, fibrotic activities of LX-2 cells induced by TGF-β were dramatically decreased after indirect co-culture with ASCs and M1 macrophages. These results suggest that a comprehensive inflammatory microenvironment may play an important role in determining the therapeutic properties of ASCs by increasing TSG-6 expression through STAT1/3 activation.
|Journal||International journal of molecular sciences|
|Publication status||Published - 2022 Nov|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was funded by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) (2021R1I1A1A01056265 and 2021R1F1A1064613).
© 2022 by the authors.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry