In this study, an optimal nanoemulsion formulation for Curcuma xanthorrhiza oil (Xan) was investigated using different sonication times. The antimicrobial effects of the nanoemulsion, the original emulsion, distilled water (DW), and Listerine, on Streptococcus mutans biofilms were compared. The optimum ultrasonic time, determined in terms of droplet size and stability, was found to be 10 min. Cell viability was the lowest on exposure to the nanoemulsion, and significantly different compared with exposure to DW or Listerine. The emulsion’s effect was similar to that of the nanoemulsion, but was non-uniform with a high interquartile range. Confocal microscope analysis revealed that the live/dead cell ratio in the nanoemulsion was 50% and 40% less than those in DW and Listerine, respectively. Biofilm treated with the nanoemulsion was thinner than biofilms exposed to the other treatments. Xan nanoemulsions exhibited stable and strong antimicrobial effects due to nano-sized particles, highlighting their potential use in oral health treatment.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (No. 2018R1C1B3002848).
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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Aquatic Science
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
- Water Science and Technology