As fullerene-based compound applications have been rapidly increasing in the health industry, the need of biomedical research is urgently in demand. While shungite is regarded as a natural source of fullerene, it remains poorly documented. Here, we explored the in vivo effects of shungite against ultraviolet B- (UVB-) induced skin damage by investigating the physiological skin parameters, immune-redox profiling, and oxidative stress molecular signaling. Toward this, mice were UVB-irradiated with 0.75 mW/cm2 for two consecutive days. Consecutively, shungite was topically applied on the dorsal side of the mice for 7 days. First, we found significant improvements in the skin parameters of the shungite-treated groups revealed by the reduction in roughness, pigmentation, and wrinkle measurement. Second, the immunokine profiling in mouse serum and skin lysates showed a reduction in the proinflammatory response in the shungite-treated groups. Accordingly, the redox profile of shungite-treated groups showed counterbalance of ROS/RNS and superoxide levels in serum and skin lysates. Last, we have confirmed the involvement of Nrf2- and MAPK-mediated oxidative stress pathways in the antioxidant mechanism of shungite. Collectively, the results clearly show that shungite has an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action against UVB-induced skin damage in hairless mice.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Yonsei University Research Fund of 2016.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cell Biology