Xanthorrhizol, a natural sesquiterpenoid isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb (Zingiberaceae), has antibacterial activities and protective effects against cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity. In this study, we investigated the activities of xanthorrhizol as an antioxidant or antiinflammatory agent using neuronal and microglial cells. Xanthorrhizol had potent neuroprotective effects on glutamate-induced neurotoxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the murine hippocampal HT22 cell line. Also, xanthorrhizol inhibited H2O2-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenates. The properties of xanthorrhizol as an antiinflammatory agent were investigated in microglial activation by lipopolysaccharide. It reduced the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and the inducible nitric oxide synthase, which consequently resulted in the reduction of nitric oxide. The production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in activated microglial cells, was reduced by xanthorrhizol. These results suggest that xanthorrhizol could be an effective candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease- and other neurological disease-related ROS and inflammation.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience