Today, high-resolution MRI scans are able to reveal even the fine details of brain structure. Several methods have been developed to quantify shape differences specific to scans of diseased brains. We have developed a novel method for quantifying shape information based on multidimensional scaling (MDS), a well-known statistical tool. Multidimensional scaling uses distance measures computed from pair-wise image registration of the training set. Image registration establishes spatial correspondence between scans in order to compare them in the same spatial framework. Our novel method has several advantages, including robustness to errors in registrations. Applying our method to 44 brain MRIs showed clear separation between normal and Alzheimer scans. Using our method as basis for classification between normal and Alzheimer scans yielded better performance results compared with using the volume of hippocampus as basis for classification. We also devised a simple measure derived from the MDS approach that was shown to correlate with the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), a well-known cognitive test for Alzheimer's disease.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Data collection and sharing for this project was funded by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) ( National Institutes of Health Grant U01 AG024904 ). ADNI is funded by the National Institute on Aging, the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, and through generous contributions from the following: Abbott, AstraZeneca AB, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eisai Global Clinical Development, Elan Corporation, Genentech, GE Healthcare, GlaxoSmithKline, Innogenetics, Johnson and Johnson, Eli Lilly and Co., Medpace, Inc., Merck and Co., Inc., Novartis AG, Pfizer Inc., F. Hoffman-La Roche, Schering-Plough, Synarc, Inc., as well as non-profit partners the Alzheimer's Association and Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation, with participation from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Private sector contributions to ADNI are facilitated by the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health ( www.fnih.org ). The grantee organization is the Northern California Institute for Research and Education, and the study is coordinated by the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study at the University of California, San Diego. ADNI data are disseminated by the Laboratory for Neuro Imaging at the University of California, Los Angeles. This research was also supported by NIH Grants P30 AG010129 , K01 AG030514 , and the Dana Foundation.
This study was supported by 1) Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (grant 20100023233), 2) Business for Cooperative R&D between Industry, Academy, and Research Institute funded Korea Small and Medium Business Administration in 2010 (grant 0850110), and 3) Ministry of Knowledge Economy of Korea (grant 10030091).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes