Rice straw, rice husk and paper sludge are by-products and industrial waste, and are beneficial resources as raw biomass materials used for manufacturing value-added composite products. We investigated the effect on selected mechanical properties of adding rice straw, rice husk and paper sludge to wood composites to replace wood particles for manufacturing green pallets. Results showed that increasing the contents of rice straw and rice husk dramatically decreased the mechanical strength of the composites. This is because the wax and silicate coating of these materials obstructed the strong bonding with UF resin. When 10 wt.% of wood particle was replaced with 10 wt.% of paper sludge, the wood-paper sludge composites showed similar mechanical properties to those of wood particle. Wood particle can be replaced by 10 wt.% of dried paper sludge in accordance with the minimum requirement recommended by standards in green pallet manufacturing.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Waste Management and Disposal
- Economics and Econometrics