In this paper, we propose AR Pointer, a new augmented reality (AR) interface that allows users to manipulate three-dimensional (3D) virtual objects in AR environment. AR Pointer uses a built-in 6-degrees of freedom (DoF) inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensor in an off-the-shelf mobile device to cast a virtual ray that is used to accurately select objects. It is also implemented using simple touch gestures commonly used in smartphones for 3D object manipulation, so users can easily manipulate 3D virtual objects using the AR Pointer, without a long training period. To demonstrate the usefulness of AR Pointer, we introduce two use-cases, constructing an AR furniture layout and AR education. Then, we conducted two experiments, performance tests and usability tests, to represent the excellence of the designed interaction methods using AR Pointer. We found that AR Pointer is more efficient than other interfaces, achieving 39.4% faster task completion time in the object manipulation. In addition, the participants gave an average of 8.61 points (13.4%) on the AR Pointer in the usability test conducted through the system usability scale (SUS) questionnaires and 8.51 points (15.1%) on the AR Pointer in the fatigue test conducted through the NASA task load index (NASA-TLX) questionnaire. Previous AR applications have been implemented in a passive AR environment where users simply check and pop up the AR objects those are prepared in advance. However, if AR Pointer is used for AR object manipulation, it is possible to provide an immersive AR environment for the user who want/wish to actively interact with the AR objects.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government(MSIP), Department of Computer Science at Yonsei University.
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government(MSIP), Department of Computer Science at Yonsei University. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government(MSIP) (No.NRF-2018R1A2A1A05078628).
© 2019 by the authors.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Process Chemistry and Technology
- Computer Science Applications
- Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes