The combination of in vivo extracellular recording and genetic-engineering-assisted optical stimulation is a powerful tool for the study of neuronal circuits. Precise analysis of complex neural circuits requires high-density integration of multiple cellular-size light sources and recording electrodes. However, high-density integration inevitably introduces stimulation artifact. We present minimal-stimulation-artifact (miniSTAR) μLED optoelectrodes that enable effective elimination of stimulation artifact. A multi-metal-layer structure with a shielding layer effectively suppresses capacitive coupling of stimulation signals. A heavily boron-doped silicon substrate silences the photovoltaic effect induced from LED illumination. With transient stimulation pulse shaping, we reduced stimulation artifact on miniSTAR μLED optoelectrodes to below 50 μVpp, much smaller than a typical spike detection threshold, at optical stimulation of >50 mW mm–2 irradiance. We demonstrated high-temporal resolution (<1 ms) opto-electrophysiology without any artifact-induced signal quality degradation during in vivo experiments. MiniSTAR μLED optoelectrodes will facilitate functional mapping of local circuits and discoveries in the brain.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The work has been supported by NIH 1-U01-NS090526-01, NSF 1545858, NSF 1707316, NIH 1-R01-MH107396-01, and NIH 1-U01-NS090583-01. We would like to thank Fan Wu for feedback on the initial conceptual design of the EMI shielding structure; Daniel F. English and Sam McKenzie for comments on EMI-induced stimulation artifact generation; Yu-Ting Cheng, Dongxiao Yan, and Kyounghwan Na for comments on PV-induced stimulation artifact generation; Hyunsoo Song for assistance with device physics simulation; and Elena della Valle and James Weiland for assistance with Pt-Ir electroplating.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)