Artificial Rod and Cone Photoreceptors with Human-Like Spectral Sensitivities

Byeongho Park, Heehong Yang, Tai Hwan Ha, Hyun Seo Park, Seung Ja Oh, Yong Sang Ryu, Youngho Cho, Hyo Suk Kim, Juyeong Oh, Dong Kyu Lee, Chulki Kim, Taikjin Lee, Minah Seo, Jaebin Choi, Young Min Jhon, Deok Ha Woo, Seok Lee, Seok Hwan Kim, Hyuk Jae Lee, Seong Chan JunHyun Seok Song, Tai Hyun Park, Jae Hun Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)


Photosensitive materials contain biologically engineered elements and are constructed using delicate techniques, with special attention devoted to efficiency, stability, and biocompatibility. However, to date, no photosensitive material has been developed to replace damaged visual-systems to detect light and transmit the signal to a neuron in the human body. In the current study, artificial nanovesicle-based photosensitive materials are observed to possess the characteristics of photoreceptors similar to the human eye. The materials exhibit considerably effective spectral characteristics according to each pigment. Four photoreceptors originating from the human eye with color-distinguishability are produced in human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells and partially purified in the form of nanovesicles. Under various wavelengths of visible light, electrochemical measurements are performed to analyze the physiological behavior and kinetics of the photoreceptors, with graphene, performing as an electrode, playing an important role in the lipid bilayer deposition and oxygen reduction processes. Four nanovesicles with different photoreceptors, namely, rhodopsin (Rho), short-, medium-, and longwave sensitive opsin 1 (1SW, 1MW, 1LW), show remarkable color-dependent characteristics, consistent with those of natural human retina. With four different light-emitting diodes for functional verification, the photoreceptors embedded in nanovesicles show remarkably specific color sensitivity. This study demonstrates the potential applications of light-activated platforms in biological optoelectronic industries.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1706764
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number27
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Jul 5

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering

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    Park, B., Yang, H., Ha, T. H., Park, H. S., Oh, S. J., Ryu, Y. S., Cho, Y., Kim, H. S., Oh, J., Lee, D. K., Kim, C., Lee, T., Seo, M., Choi, J., Jhon, Y. M., Woo, D. H., Lee, S., Kim, S. H., Lee, H. J., ... Kim, J. H. (2018). Artificial Rod and Cone Photoreceptors with Human-Like Spectral Sensitivities. Advanced Materials, 30(27), [1706764].