Association between halitosis diagnosed by a questionnaire and halimeter and symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease

Hyo Jung Lee, Hee Man Kim, Nayoung Kim, Jane C. Oh, Hyun Jin Jo, Jung Tae Lee, Hee Yung Chang, Na Hee Chang, Soyeon Ahn, Jeong Yun Lee

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3 Citations (Scopus)


Background/Aims: The relationship between halitosis and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate an association between subjective and objective halitosis and GERD. Methods: The subjects were enrolled from participants who visited a health promotion center at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. For diagnosis of halitosis, a questionnaire was requested, and volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) were measured by Halimeter. Self-conscious halitosis was defined as halitosis perceived by himself or herself. Informed halitosis was defined as halitosis perceived by others. Objective halitosis was defined when mean VSCs values were > 100 parts per billion. GERD was defined based on a questionnaire and endoscopy, including erosive esophagitis and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). Results: A total of 54 subjects (male:female = 33:21) with mean age of 46.0 ± 11.4 years were analyzed. The mean VSCs values were not significantly different between presence and absence of self-conscious halitosis (P = 0.322), but significantly different between presence and absence of informed halitosis (P = 0.021). Informed halitosis was associated with objective halitosis (P = 0.039). GERD, erosive esophagitis and NERD did not correlate with objective halitosis (P = 0.556, 0.206 and 0.902, respectively). In multivariable analysis, the relationship between objective halitosis and GERD symptoms including chest pain, heart burn, acid regurgitation, epigastric pain, hoarseness, globus sensation and coughing was not significant. Besides, GERD was not associated with self-conscious halitosis, informed halitosis and objective halitosis, respectively. Conclusions: GERD might not be associated with self-conscious, informed halitosis and objective halitosis indicated by Halimeter results. Informed halitosis could be correlated with objective halitosis determined by the Halimeter.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)483-490
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Jan 1


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Gastroenterology

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