Several experimental studies implicate uric acid in renal injury and fibrosis. The objective of this study was to examine the association between uric acid level and allograft fibrosis after kidney transplantation. 241 adult patients who underwent kidney transplantation between 2003 and 2014 were divided into three groups according to the sex specific tertiles of mean uric acid level within the first post-transplant year. The renal biopsies performed during 1 to 5 post-transplant year were analyzed to compare the degree of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF/TA). Mean interval between kidney transplantation and biopsy was similar between groups (23.7 ± 15.3 vs. 30.0 ± 18.6 vs. 27.5 ± 18.5 months, P = 0.072). The higher tertile uric acid level was, the more advanced grade of IF/TA was shown (P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis identified uric acid tertile was independent risk factor for severe IF/TA (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] was 3.16 [1.13–8.82] for tertile 2 and 3.70 [1.25–10.93] for tertile 3, versus tertile 1, respectively). Other independent factors were estimated glomerular filtration rate at 1year post-transplant (0.80 [CI 0.65–0.98]) and biopsy-proven rejection (2.34 [1.05–5.21]). Graft survival over 10 years was significantly lower in tertile 3 (P = 0.041). The results showed that higher uric acid level after kidney transplantation was associated with more severe IF/TA.
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