Objective: Periodontitis and osteoarthritis are major public health concerns that result in decreased quality of life among middle-aged and older adults. We sought to examine whether the severity of periodontitis is related to osteoarthritis according to the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: This study included 3,527 participants age ≥50 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Periodontitis was assessed using the Community Periodontal Index; severe periodontitis was defined as periodontal tissue forming deep periodontal pockets ≥6-mm depth. Osteoarthritis was defined as Kellgren/Lawrence grade ≥2 on radiographic images of the knee or hip area with joint pain. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for osteoarthritis according to the severity of periodontitis, stratified by type 2 diabetes mellitus, were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses. Results: Participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus were more likely to have osteoarthritis as the severity of periodontitis increased (nonsevere periodontitis OR 1.23 [95% CI 0.67–2.32]; severe periodontitis OR 3.01 [95% CI 1.51–5.84]) after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, regular exercise, education level, household income, hypertension, and frequent tooth-brushing. However, this positive association was not found in individuals without type 2 diabetes mellitus after adjusting for the same covariables. Conclusion: Severe periodontitis was positively and significantly associated with osteoarthritis in middle-aged and older individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our findings suggest that the oral inflammation manifesting in periodontitis may be at least partly involved in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis, particularly in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank all those who conducted the KNHANES, as well as the individuals who participated in this survey.
© 2020 American College of Rheumatology.
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