Although aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) and ARS-interacting multi-functional proteins (AIMPs) have long been recognized as housekeeping proteins, evidence indicating that they play a key role in regulating cancer is now accumulating. In this chapter we will review the conventional and non-conventional functions of ARSs and AIMPs with respect to carcinogenesis. First, we will address how ARSs and AIMPs are altered in terms of expression, mutation, splicing, and post-translational modifications. Second, the molecular mechanisms for ARSs’ and AIMPs’ involvement in the initiation, maintenance, and progress of carcinogenesis will be covered. Finally, we will introduce the development of therapeutic approaches that target ARSs and AIMPs with the goal of treating cancer.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes