Association of dietary patterns with weight status and metabolic risk factors among children and adolescents

Seulki Oh, So Yeong Lee, Do Yeon Kim, Sarah Woo, Yoonmyung Kim, Hye Ja Lee, Han Byul Jang, Sang Ick Park, Kyung Hee Park, Hyunjung Lim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Unhealthy dietary patterns are associated with obesity in children and adolescents. How-ever, few studies have investigated the relationships between dietary patterns and obesity-related metabolic disorders among Asians. We identified dietary patterns in children and adolescents and examined the associations between these patterns and obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome in South Korea. This study is a cross-sectional design. We used baseline data from an intervention study of 435 Korean children and adolescents aged 6–17 years. Insulin resistance was assessed as HOMA-IR ≥ 2.6. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed by cardiovascular disease risk factor clustering. Dietary intakes were estimated using 3-day food records. Factor analysis was used to obtain dietary patterns, and we examined the associations between dietary patterns and obesity-related markers adjusted for potential covariates. Three dietary patterns were identified as fast food and soda (FFS), white rice and kimchi (WRK), and oil and seasoned vegetable (OSV) patterns. Compared with participants in the lower intake of FFS pattern, those in the top intake were associated with a higher waist circumference (WC) (β = 1.55), insulin level (β = 1.25), and body mass index (BMI) (β = 0.53) and it was positively associated with HOMA-IR ≥ 2.6 (OR = 2.11; 95% CI: 1.227–3.638) (p < 0.05). WRK pattern was associated with lower weight and higher HDL cholesterol, and the OSV pattern was associated with a lower weight, WC, and insulin level (p < 0.05). The FFS pattern showed a positive relation with WC, serum insulin, and BMI, and the other two dietary patterns indicated a preventive effect of those parameters. The FFS pattern was associated with significantly elevated insulin resistance among children and adolescents.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1153
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Apr

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This study was supported by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (grant number: 2016-ER6405-00).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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