Background-A recent study reported that morning hypertension is associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes in hypertensive patients. However, it is unclear whether morning hypertension associated with sustained nocturnal hypertension and that associated with morning blood pressure (BP) surge differ in terms of their effects on cardiovascular target organ damage and clinical outcomes. The present study aimed to determine the association of morning hypertension with/without nocturnal hypertension with vascular target organ damage and central hemodynamics in patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results-Ambulatory BP monitoring was performed and central BP was measured in 1070 consecutive patients with high cardiovascular risk. We grouped morning hypertension into the following 3 subtypes: (I) morning normotension; (II) morning hypertension without nocturnal hypertension; and (III) morning hypertension with nocturnal hypertension. Morning hypertension was noted in 469 (43.8%) patients and morning hypertension with nocturnal hypertension was noted in 374 (34.9%) patients. The central systolic/diastolic BP and carotid to femoral pulse wave velocity were significantly higher in the subtype III group than in the subtype I and II groups (all P < 0.001). Subtype III (versus subtype I) was an independent predictor of central hypertension and highrisk arterial stiffness (P < 0.001 and P=0.018, respectively) but not vascular damage in a fully adjusted model (model Y). Conclusions-Morning hypertension, especially that associated with nocturnal hypertension, is related to high central BP and increased arterial stiffness. Further studies on whether morning hypertension with or without nocturnal hypertension is related to clinical outcomes should be performed.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by a grant from the Korean Health Technology R&D Project, Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (HI13C0715), and supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (NRF-2015R1A2A2A01007346).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine