Background: Evidence suggests that habitual snoring is an independent risk factor for poor glycemic health. We examined the associations between snoring with prediabetes and diabetes in Korean population. Methods: Self-reported snoring characteristics were collected from 3,948 middle-aged adults without prior cardiovascular diseases. Multivariable linear regression assessed the association of snoring intensity, frequency, disruptiveness, and disrupted breathing with fasting glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level. Then, multinomial regression evaluated how increasing snoring symptoms are associated with the risk for prediabetes and diabetes, adjusting for socioeconomic and behavioral risk factors of diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and other sleep variables. Results: Higher snoring intensity and frequency were positively associated with fasting glucose and HbA1c levels. Participants presenting the most severe snoring were at 1.84 times higher risk (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 2.29) for prediabetes and 2.24 times higher risk (95% CI, 1.84 to 2.95) for diabetes, compared to non-snorers. Such graded association was also observed amongst the most frequent snorers with higher risk for prediabetes (odds ratio [OR], 1.78; 95% CI, 1.29 to 2.22) and diabetes (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.45 to 2.85). Disruptive snoring (OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.12 to 2.28) and near-daily disruptive breathing (OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.02 to 4.19) were associated with higher odds for diabetes. Such findings remained robust after additional adjustment for sleep duration, excessive daytime sleepiness, unwakefulness, and sleep-deprived driving. Conclusion: Snoring is associated with impaired glucose metabolism even in otherwise metabolically healthy adults. Habitual snorers may require lifestyle modifications and pharmacological treatment to improve glycemic profile.
|Journal||Diabetes and Metabolism Journal|
|Publication status||Published - 2020|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by a grant of the Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI), funded by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Republic of Korea (grant no. HI13C0715). The authors appreciate all cohort members who participated voluntarily in the study. We are also grateful to members of the research staff for their passion.
This work was supported by a grant of the Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI), funded by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Republic of Korea (grant no. HI13C0715). The authors appreciate all cohort members who participated voluntarily in the study. We are also grateful to members of the re-
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism