Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) and the presence of coronary artery calcium (CAC) are closely related with inflammatory activity and cardiovascular disease outcomes. To date, however, the relationship between a high RHR and CAC has not been well studied, especially in non-western populations. We therefore aimed to examine the cross-sectional relationship between high RHR and the burden of subclinical atherosclerosis as measured by CAC score in a large sample of Korean adults. A total 26,018 subjects were enrolled and underwent CAC screening as part of a broader general health examination. RHR was categorized into four groups as: <60, 60–69, 70–79, and ≥80 beats per minute. Multivariable logistic regression models were employed to estimate the odds of having a CAC score of either >0, >100, or >400 based on RHR. Mean age of the study population was 53.9 ± 8.2 years, and 79.7 % were male. After adjustment, each 10 beat per minute increment in RHR was associated with greater odds of having a CAC score above 100 (OR 1.13, 95 % CI 1.08–1.18) or 400 (OR 1.22, 95 % CI 1.13–1.31). Likewise, following adjustment, the odds of having a CAC >100 or >400 for those with a RHR ≥80 beats per minute were 1.42 (95 % CI 1.19–1.69) and 1.86 (95 % CI 1.42–2.47), respectively, compared with those who had a RHR <60 beats per minute. In a large cohort of Korean adults, elevations in the RHR, particularly above 80 beats per minute, were found to be independently associated with the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis as measured by CAC scoring.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by Leading Foreign Research Institute Recruitment Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (MSIP; 2012027176) and funded in part by a generous gift from the Dalio Institute of Cardiovascular Imaging and the Michael Wolk Foundation.
© 2016, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine