Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection leads to gastric inflammation, peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma. H. pylori activates NADPH oxidase and increases reactive oxygen species (ROS), which induce NF-κB activation and IL-8 expression in gastric epithelial cells. Dysfunctional mitochondria trigger inflammatory cytokine production. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-γ (PPAR-γ) regulate inflammatory response. Astaxanthin is a powerful antioxidant that protects cells against oxidative stress. The present study was aimed at determining whether astaxanthin inhibits H. pylori-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, NF-κB activation, and IL-8 expression via PPAR-γ activation in gastric epithelial cells. Gastric epithelial AGS cells were treated with astaxanthin, NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin and PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662, and infected with H. pylori. As a result, H. pylori caused an increase in intracellular and mitochondrial ROS, NF-κB activation and IL-8 expression, but decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP level. Astaxanthin inhibited H. pylori-induced alterations (increased ROS, mitochondrial dysfunction, NF-κB activation, and IL-8 expression). Astaxanthin activated PPAR-γ and its target gene catalase in H. pylori-infected cells. Apocynin reduced ROS and inhibited IL-8 expression while astaxanthin did not affect NADPH oxidase activity. Inhibitory effects of astaxanthin on ROS levels and IL-8 expression were suppressed by addition of GW9662. In conclusion, astaxanthin inhibits H. pylori-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS-mediated IL-8 expression by activating PPAR-γ and catalase in gastric epithelial cells. Astaxanthin may be beneficial for preventing oxidative stress-mediated gastric inflammation-associated H. pylori infection.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported financially by a grant from the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea, which is funded by the Korean Government (NRF-2018R1A2B2005575).
Funding: This study was supported financially by a grant from the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea, which is funded by the Korean Government (NRF-2018R1A2B2005575).
© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Food Science
- Nutrition and Dietetics