The atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a promising thin film deposition technique in the fabrication of nanoscale semiconductors devices. In this paper, the results on the ALD of transition metals are reviewed for their applications as silicide contact of nanoscale semiconductor devices, especially focusing on the growth characteristics of ALD Co (and Ni) and comparison between plasma-enhanced ALD (PE-ALD) and thermal ALD (TH-ALD). For most of metal organic precursors, NH3 plasma is a good choice as a reactant to produce highly pure Co or Ni films, while H2 or N2 plasma does not produce high quality film. At optimal conditions, highly pure Co films were deposited with low resistivity down to 10 μΩ cm. Relatively good quality metal film formation by thermal ALD was possible by limited range of precursors including Co(iPr-AMD)2. Even for these precursors, the resistivity and other film properties were inferior to those of PE-ALD films. However, for PE-ALD using NH3 plasma, the conformality was not good enough for high aspect ratio nanoscale via structures, which necessitates the development of thermal ALD process. The formation of silicide by rapid thermal annealing of ALD Co thin films was also investigated showing different behavior for PE- and TH-ALD Co thin films.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Technology Innovation Program Industrial Strategic Technology Development Program , 10035430 , Development of reliable fine-pitch metallization technologies funded by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy MKE, Korea. Ni(dmamb) 2 precursor was provided by KRICT, Korea.
© 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering