Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing allergic inflammatory skin disease that currently affects millions of children and adults worldwide. Drugs used to treat these inflammatory diseases include anti-histamines, corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors but these drugs have their limitations such as adverse effects with their long-term usage. Thus, researcher's interest in several alternative and complementary therapies are continually growing and balneotherapy is one of these approaches. Therefore, we investigate the bathing effect of high concentration mineral spring water (HMW) on redox balance and immune modulation in 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced atopic dermatitis like inflammation in hairless mice. Methods: We induced AD-like inflammation by application of DNCB on the dorsal skin of female skh-1 hairless mice. The mice were treated with 100% pure HMW (PHMW) and 10% diluted HMW (DHMW) through bathing once a day for 4 weeks. Tacrolimus ointment (0.1%) was used as positive control (PC) and only DNCB treatment as negative control (NeC) group. The severity of skin lesion inflammation was assessed through clinical scoring and observing scratching behavior. Levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and inflammatory cytokines in serum were detected by ELISA and multiplex bead array system, and the levels of oxidative stress-related biomarkers and antioxidant enzyme were also measured. Results: We found that HMW significantly decreased the scratching behavior in PHMW and DHMW groups at the 2nd week and in PHMW group at 4th week compared to NeC group. Likewise, serum IgE level was significantly decreased in DHMW group as compared to NeC group. In line, the level of inflammatory cytokines in serum such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-13 and tumor necrosis factor-α were significantly inhibited in PHMW and DHMW groups compared to NeC group. In parallel, total reactive oxygen species (ROS) of serum level was significantly decreased in PHMW treatment groups compared to NeC group. Consistently, serum malondialdehyde (MDA) level in PHMW group was lower than in NeC group. By contrast, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity was significantly enhanced in PHMW than NeC. Conclusion: Collectively, our study indicates a balneotherapeutic effect of HMW on DNCB-induced AD like inflammation in hairless mice via immunomodulation and redox balance.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2016S1A5B8925203).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Complementary and alternative medicine