Beam Squint in Ultra-wideband mmWave Systems: RF Lens Array vs. Phase-Shifter-Based Array

Sang Hyun Park, Byoungnam Kim, Dong Ku Kim, Linglong Dai, Kai Kit Wong, Chan Byoung Chae

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


In this article, we discuss the potential of radio frequency (RF) lens for ultra-wideband millimeter-wave (mmWave) systems. In terms of the beam squint, we compare the proposed RF lens antenna with the phase shifter-based array for hybrid beamforming. To reduce the complexities for fully digital beamforming, researchers have come up with RF lens-based hybrid beamforming. The use of mmWave systems, however, causes an increase in bandwidth, which gives rise to the beam squint phenomenon. We first find the causative factors for beam squint in the dielectric RF lens antenna. Based on the beamforming gain at each frequency, we verify that, in a specific situation, RF lens can be free of the beam squint effect. We use 3D electromagnetic analysis software to numerically interpret the beam squint of each antenna type. Based on the results, we present the degraded spectral efficiency by system-level simulations with 3D indoor ray tracing. Finally, to verify our analysis, we fabricate an actual RF lens antenna and demonstrate the real performance using a mmWave, NI PXIe, software-defined radio system.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-8
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Wireless Communications
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022

Bibliographical note

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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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