Patients with metabolic disorders frequently suffer from side effects induced by long-term oral medications. The present study using a rat model system indicated that leflunomide (LF) and amlodipine (AMD), the active ingredients contained in the medications for rheumatoid arthritis and hypertension, respectively, appeared to induce various bowel problems including constipation and inflammation. In the small and large intestine, LF increased the expression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 compared to the null control and AMD increased the expression of both TNF-α and IL-1β, although its effect on IL-6 was only increased in the large intestine. It is noteworthy that the probiotic blend tested was found to alleviate intestinal complications caused by LF and AMD. Analysis of the gut microbiota revealed that AMD induced compositional changes in the gut microbiota. Namely, members of the phylum Bacteroidetes, which constituted only about 0.3% of the microbiota in the null control, made up more than 10% of the total composition in the AMD-administered rats. Interestingly, the probiotic blend was also found to normaliSe the gut microbiota.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by a grant from Cell Biotech Co., Ltd. through the Cell Biotech R&D Centre.
© 2017 Wageningen Academic Publishers.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Microbiology (medical)