Beneficial immunostimulatory effect of short-term Chlorella supplementation

Enhancement of Natural Killer cell activity and early inflammatory response (Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial)

Jung Hyun Kwak, Seung Han Baek, Yongje Woo, Jae Kab Han, Byung Gon Kim, Oh Yoen Kim, Jong Ho Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Abstract. Background: In vitro and animal studies have demonstrated that Chlorella is a potent biological response modifier on immunity. However, there were no direct evidences for the effect of Chlorella supplementation on immune/inflammation response in healthy humans. Methods. This study was designed for an 8-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial: 5g of Chlorella (n=23) or Placebo (n=28) as form of tablets. Mainly, cytotoxic activities of Natural killer (NK) cells and serum concentrations of interferon-γ, interleukin-1β and interleukin-12 were measured. Results: After the 8-week, serum concentrations of interferon-γ (p<0.05) and interleukin-1β (p<0.001) significantly increased and that of interleukin-12 (p<0.1) tended to increase in the Chlorella group. The increments of these cytokines after the intervention were significantly bigger in the Chlorella group than those in the placebo group. In addition, NK cell activities (%) were significantly increased in Chlorella group, but not in Placebo group. The increments of NK cell activities (%) were also significantly bigger in the Chlorella group than the placebo group. Additionally, changed levels of NK cell activity were positively correlated with those of serum interleukin-1β (r=0.280, p=0.047) and interferon-γ (r=0.271, p<0.005). Signficantly positive correlations were also observed among the changed levels of serum cytokines; between interferon-γ and interleukin-1β (r=0.448, p<0.001), between interleukin-12 and interleukin-1β (r=0.416, p=0.003) and between interleukin-12 and interferon-γ (r=0.570, p<001). Conclusion: These results may suggest a beneficial immunostimulatory effect of short-term Chlorella supplementation which enhances the NK cell activity and produces interferon-γ and interleukin-12 as well as interleukin-1β, the Th-1 cell-induced cytokines in healthy people.

Original languageEnglish
Article number53
JournalNutrition Journal
Volume11
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Aug 2

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Chlorella
Natural Killer Cells
Interleukin-1
Placebos
Interferons
Interleukin-12
Cytokines
Serum
Immunologic Factors
Tablets
Immunity
Inflammation

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

@article{cf91e334e94a4d768ad474463bbac7f5,
title = "Beneficial immunostimulatory effect of short-term Chlorella supplementation: Enhancement of Natural Killer cell activity and early inflammatory response (Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial)",
abstract = "Abstract. Background: In vitro and animal studies have demonstrated that Chlorella is a potent biological response modifier on immunity. However, there were no direct evidences for the effect of Chlorella supplementation on immune/inflammation response in healthy humans. Methods. This study was designed for an 8-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial: 5g of Chlorella (n=23) or Placebo (n=28) as form of tablets. Mainly, cytotoxic activities of Natural killer (NK) cells and serum concentrations of interferon-γ, interleukin-1β and interleukin-12 were measured. Results: After the 8-week, serum concentrations of interferon-γ (p<0.05) and interleukin-1β (p<0.001) significantly increased and that of interleukin-12 (p<0.1) tended to increase in the Chlorella group. The increments of these cytokines after the intervention were significantly bigger in the Chlorella group than those in the placebo group. In addition, NK cell activities ({\%}) were significantly increased in Chlorella group, but not in Placebo group. The increments of NK cell activities ({\%}) were also significantly bigger in the Chlorella group than the placebo group. Additionally, changed levels of NK cell activity were positively correlated with those of serum interleukin-1β (r=0.280, p=0.047) and interferon-γ (r=0.271, p<0.005). Signficantly positive correlations were also observed among the changed levels of serum cytokines; between interferon-γ and interleukin-1β (r=0.448, p<0.001), between interleukin-12 and interleukin-1β (r=0.416, p=0.003) and between interleukin-12 and interferon-γ (r=0.570, p<001). Conclusion: These results may suggest a beneficial immunostimulatory effect of short-term Chlorella supplementation which enhances the NK cell activity and produces interferon-γ and interleukin-12 as well as interleukin-1β, the Th-1 cell-induced cytokines in healthy people.",
author = "Kwak, {Jung Hyun} and Baek, {Seung Han} and Yongje Woo and Han, {Jae Kab} and Kim, {Byung Gon} and Kim, {Oh Yoen} and Lee, {Jong Ho}",
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Beneficial immunostimulatory effect of short-term Chlorella supplementation : Enhancement of Natural Killer cell activity and early inflammatory response (Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial). / Kwak, Jung Hyun; Baek, Seung Han; Woo, Yongje; Han, Jae Kab; Kim, Byung Gon; Kim, Oh Yoen; Lee, Jong Ho.

In: Nutrition Journal, Vol. 11, No. 1, 53, 02.08.2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Beneficial immunostimulatory effect of short-term Chlorella supplementation

T2 - Enhancement of Natural Killer cell activity and early inflammatory response (Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial)

AU - Kwak, Jung Hyun

AU - Baek, Seung Han

AU - Woo, Yongje

AU - Han, Jae Kab

AU - Kim, Byung Gon

AU - Kim, Oh Yoen

AU - Lee, Jong Ho

PY - 2012/8/2

Y1 - 2012/8/2

N2 - Abstract. Background: In vitro and animal studies have demonstrated that Chlorella is a potent biological response modifier on immunity. However, there were no direct evidences for the effect of Chlorella supplementation on immune/inflammation response in healthy humans. Methods. This study was designed for an 8-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial: 5g of Chlorella (n=23) or Placebo (n=28) as form of tablets. Mainly, cytotoxic activities of Natural killer (NK) cells and serum concentrations of interferon-γ, interleukin-1β and interleukin-12 were measured. Results: After the 8-week, serum concentrations of interferon-γ (p<0.05) and interleukin-1β (p<0.001) significantly increased and that of interleukin-12 (p<0.1) tended to increase in the Chlorella group. The increments of these cytokines after the intervention were significantly bigger in the Chlorella group than those in the placebo group. In addition, NK cell activities (%) were significantly increased in Chlorella group, but not in Placebo group. The increments of NK cell activities (%) were also significantly bigger in the Chlorella group than the placebo group. Additionally, changed levels of NK cell activity were positively correlated with those of serum interleukin-1β (r=0.280, p=0.047) and interferon-γ (r=0.271, p<0.005). Signficantly positive correlations were also observed among the changed levels of serum cytokines; between interferon-γ and interleukin-1β (r=0.448, p<0.001), between interleukin-12 and interleukin-1β (r=0.416, p=0.003) and between interleukin-12 and interferon-γ (r=0.570, p<001). Conclusion: These results may suggest a beneficial immunostimulatory effect of short-term Chlorella supplementation which enhances the NK cell activity and produces interferon-γ and interleukin-12 as well as interleukin-1β, the Th-1 cell-induced cytokines in healthy people.

AB - Abstract. Background: In vitro and animal studies have demonstrated that Chlorella is a potent biological response modifier on immunity. However, there were no direct evidences for the effect of Chlorella supplementation on immune/inflammation response in healthy humans. Methods. This study was designed for an 8-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial: 5g of Chlorella (n=23) or Placebo (n=28) as form of tablets. Mainly, cytotoxic activities of Natural killer (NK) cells and serum concentrations of interferon-γ, interleukin-1β and interleukin-12 were measured. Results: After the 8-week, serum concentrations of interferon-γ (p<0.05) and interleukin-1β (p<0.001) significantly increased and that of interleukin-12 (p<0.1) tended to increase in the Chlorella group. The increments of these cytokines after the intervention were significantly bigger in the Chlorella group than those in the placebo group. In addition, NK cell activities (%) were significantly increased in Chlorella group, but not in Placebo group. The increments of NK cell activities (%) were also significantly bigger in the Chlorella group than the placebo group. Additionally, changed levels of NK cell activity were positively correlated with those of serum interleukin-1β (r=0.280, p=0.047) and interferon-γ (r=0.271, p<0.005). Signficantly positive correlations were also observed among the changed levels of serum cytokines; between interferon-γ and interleukin-1β (r=0.448, p<0.001), between interleukin-12 and interleukin-1β (r=0.416, p=0.003) and between interleukin-12 and interferon-γ (r=0.570, p<001). Conclusion: These results may suggest a beneficial immunostimulatory effect of short-term Chlorella supplementation which enhances the NK cell activity and produces interferon-γ and interleukin-12 as well as interleukin-1β, the Th-1 cell-induced cytokines in healthy people.

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