This study aimed to compare health-related quality of life (HRQOL) over time in patients initiating hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). A total of 989 incident patients starting HD or PD were included from a prospective nationwide cohort study. HRQOL was assessed 3, 12, and 24 months after the start of dialysis. The scores of questionnaires were adjusted for clinical and socioeconomic parameters. The adjusted three months scores of patients on PD showed better HRQOL in eight end-stage renal disease (ESRD), three physical component summary and one mental component summary domains compared with patients on HD. Both patients on HD and PD experienced significant decreases in different HRQOL domains over two years and the degree of changes in HRQOL over time was not different between dialysis modality. However, the scores of three (effects of kidney disease, burden of kidney disease, and dialysis staff encouragement, all P < 0.05) and two (sexual function and dialysis staff encouragement, all P < 0.05) ESRD domains were still higher in patients on PD compared with patients on HD at one and two years after initiation of dialysis, respectively. PD shows better HRQOL during the initial period after dialysis even after adjusting for clinical and socioeconomic characteristics, and the effect lasts up to two years. It was similar in terms of changes in HRQOL over time between HD and PD.
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