Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most prevalent cause of dementia worldwide, yet the dearth of readily accessible diagnostic biomarkers is a substantial hindrance towards progressing to effective preventive and therapeutic approaches. Due to a long delay between cerebral amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation and the onset of cognitive impairments, biomarkers that reflect Aβ pathology and enable routine screening for disease progression are of urgent need for application in the clinical diagnosis of AD. According to accumulating evidences, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma offer windows to the brain as they allow monitoring of biochemical changes in the brain. Considering the high availability and accuracy in depicting Aβ deposition in the brain, Aβ levels in CSF and plasma are regarded as promising fluid biomarkers for the diagnosis of AD patients at an early stage. However, clinical data with intra- and interindividual variations in the concentrations of CSF and plasma Aβ implicate the need to reevaluate current Aβ detection methods and establish a standardized operating procedure. Therefore, this review introduces three bias-generating factors in biofluid Aβ measurement that may hamper the accurate Aβ quantification and how such complications can be overcome for the widespread implementation of fluid Aβ detection in clinical practice.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
All images are created by the authors of this manuscript. This work was supported by the Korea Health Technology R&D Project (Grant Number: HU21C0161) through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI) and Korea Dementia Research Center (KDRC), and Basic Science Research Program (Grant Number: NRF-2018R1A6A1A03023718) and Original Technology Research Program for Brain Science Program (Grant Number: NRF-2018M3C7A1021858) through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), funded by the Ministry of Health & Welfare and Ministry of Science and ICT, Republic of Korea. This research was also supported by Amyloid Solution and POSCO Science Fellowship of POSCO TJ Park Foundation.
© 2021, Korean Society of Medical and Biological Engineering.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biomedical Engineering