Bacillus licheniformis MB-2, isolated from a hot spring water in Manado, Indonesia, secreted a unique chitosanase. Media consisted of 0.24% chitosan, 0.25% casiton, 1% MgSO4, 1.4% K2HPO4, 0.02% CaCl2·2H2O, 0.002% FeSO4·7H 2O (w/v) was used for enzyme production. Purification of the enzyme through the hydrophobic interaction chromatography system (butyl Sepharose 4 FF) resulted in two major active fractions; the F2 fraction was shown as a single band at both sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and zymogram analysis with apparent molecular mass of 75 kDa. The enzyme worked best at 70°C and pH between 6.0 and 7.0. When incubated at 70, 80, and 90°, the t1/2 values were 26.56, 18.44, and 16.74 min, respectively with the k constant being at 0.026, 0.037, and 0.04/min. When heated at 90°C, the enzyme retained its activity up to 8 h in the presence of 1 mM MnCl2. The enzyme's activity was unaffected by the presence of 1 M NaCl and 6 M urea but was decreased by 2 M of guanidine hydrochloride. Albeit the enzyme did not degrade colloidal and glycol chitin, it hydrolyzed glycol chitosan up to 0.8% and colloidal chitosan up to 11%. The 85% deacetylated (DDA) soluble chitosan was the most susceptible to this enzyme, followed by 90% and 100% DDA chitosan. The Km app values of the 85, 90, and 100% DDA soluble chitosans were found as 0.23, 0.24, and 0.58 mg/mL, whereas the Vmax values were 843, 668, and 261 U/mg, respectively. The hydrolysis products of F2 chitosanase at 24 h incubation (70°C) were pentasaccharide (GlcN)5 and hexasaccharide (GlcN)6. The preliminary test showed inhibitory effect of chitooligosaccharides resulted from enzymatic degradation toward Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was initiated through the Cooperation between Research Center for Biotechnology, Bogor Agriculture University, Bogor, Indonesia, and Bioproduct Research Center, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea, and also supported by Program B, Dept of Food Science and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University. Special appreciation to Prof. Makoto Kawamukai from Shimane University for providing 90 and 100% deacetylated chitosan. Thanks to Dr. Yaya Rukayadi, who helped with microorganism sampling in Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
- Molecular Biology