Bioenergy production and metallic iron (Fe) conversion from Botryococcus sp. cultivated in domestic wastewater: Algal biorefinery concept

Veeramuthu Ashokkumar, Wei Hsin Chen, Ala'a H. Al-Muhtaseb, Gopalakrishnan Kumar, Palanivel Sathishkumar, Sivakumar Pandian, Farid Nasir Ani, Chawalit Ngamcharussrivichai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study focused on a novel approach for biodiesel production and metallic iron synthesis using biochar obtained from the biomass residue of green microalgae Botryococcus sp. Hematite (Fe2O3) is one of the most important iron ore used in steelmaking industries. Thus, we proposed this work for the development of algal biorefinery concept at commercial scale. This work contains two phases; in the first phase, the alga was successfully cultivated on the domestic wastewater at large scale using a low-cost photobioreactor, which provided significant biomass and lipid yield. To reduce the cost involved in biomass harvesting, an auto-flocculation technique was implemented and harvested 94.8% of biomass without adding any flocculants. The biodiesel extraction was performed in an ultrasonic bath with a frequency of 25 kHz using a tungstated zirconia as a heterogeneous acid catalyst, which produced 94.1 wt% of biodiesel yield. The kinetic studies were investigated at various reaction temperature and confirmed that the reaction followed a pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The activation energy and pre-exponential factor for the transesterification reaction were found to be 45.3861 kJ mol−1 and 2.6956 min−1, respectively. In the second phase, the lipid extracted residue was converted to biochar through pyrolysis process, and the yield obtained was 41 wt%. The obtained biochar was utilized for metallic iron synthesis, and this reaction was carried out in a thermogravimetric analyzer equipped with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the reduction behaviors was occurred in a stepwise manner rendering to the temperature and the metallic iron synthesis was found at 990 °C.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1326-1334
Number of pages9
JournalEnergy Conversion and Management
Volume196
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Sep 15

Fingerprint

Biomass
Wastewater
Biodiesel
Iron
Lipids
Photobioreactors
Kinetics
Hematite
Steelmaking
Transesterification
Iron ores
Flocculation
Algae
Zirconia
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
Costs
Pyrolysis
Activation energy
Ultrasonics
Temperature

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology

Cite this

Ashokkumar, Veeramuthu ; Chen, Wei Hsin ; Al-Muhtaseb, Ala'a H. ; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan ; Sathishkumar, Palanivel ; Pandian, Sivakumar ; Ani, Farid Nasir ; Ngamcharussrivichai, Chawalit. / Bioenergy production and metallic iron (Fe) conversion from Botryococcus sp. cultivated in domestic wastewater : Algal biorefinery concept. In: Energy Conversion and Management. 2019 ; Vol. 196. pp. 1326-1334.
@article{835ab6d4d6714b839342757645bae164,
title = "Bioenergy production and metallic iron (Fe) conversion from Botryococcus sp. cultivated in domestic wastewater: Algal biorefinery concept",
abstract = "This study focused on a novel approach for biodiesel production and metallic iron synthesis using biochar obtained from the biomass residue of green microalgae Botryococcus sp. Hematite (Fe2O3) is one of the most important iron ore used in steelmaking industries. Thus, we proposed this work for the development of algal biorefinery concept at commercial scale. This work contains two phases; in the first phase, the alga was successfully cultivated on the domestic wastewater at large scale using a low-cost photobioreactor, which provided significant biomass and lipid yield. To reduce the cost involved in biomass harvesting, an auto-flocculation technique was implemented and harvested 94.8{\%} of biomass without adding any flocculants. The biodiesel extraction was performed in an ultrasonic bath with a frequency of 25 kHz using a tungstated zirconia as a heterogeneous acid catalyst, which produced 94.1 wt{\%} of biodiesel yield. The kinetic studies were investigated at various reaction temperature and confirmed that the reaction followed a pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The activation energy and pre-exponential factor for the transesterification reaction were found to be 45.3861 kJ mol−1 and 2.6956 min−1, respectively. In the second phase, the lipid extracted residue was converted to biochar through pyrolysis process, and the yield obtained was 41 wt{\%}. The obtained biochar was utilized for metallic iron synthesis, and this reaction was carried out in a thermogravimetric analyzer equipped with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the reduction behaviors was occurred in a stepwise manner rendering to the temperature and the metallic iron synthesis was found at 990 °C.",
author = "Veeramuthu Ashokkumar and Chen, {Wei Hsin} and Al-Muhtaseb, {Ala'a H.} and Gopalakrishnan Kumar and Palanivel Sathishkumar and Sivakumar Pandian and Ani, {Farid Nasir} and Chawalit Ngamcharussrivichai",
year = "2019",
month = "9",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1016/j.enconman.2019.06.069",
language = "English",
volume = "196",
pages = "1326--1334",
journal = "Energy Conversion and Management",
issn = "0196-8904",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",

}

Bioenergy production and metallic iron (Fe) conversion from Botryococcus sp. cultivated in domestic wastewater : Algal biorefinery concept. / Ashokkumar, Veeramuthu; Chen, Wei Hsin; Al-Muhtaseb, Ala'a H.; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Sathishkumar, Palanivel; Pandian, Sivakumar; Ani, Farid Nasir; Ngamcharussrivichai, Chawalit.

In: Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 196, 15.09.2019, p. 1326-1334.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Bioenergy production and metallic iron (Fe) conversion from Botryococcus sp. cultivated in domestic wastewater

T2 - Algal biorefinery concept

AU - Ashokkumar, Veeramuthu

AU - Chen, Wei Hsin

AU - Al-Muhtaseb, Ala'a H.

AU - Kumar, Gopalakrishnan

AU - Sathishkumar, Palanivel

AU - Pandian, Sivakumar

AU - Ani, Farid Nasir

AU - Ngamcharussrivichai, Chawalit

PY - 2019/9/15

Y1 - 2019/9/15

N2 - This study focused on a novel approach for biodiesel production and metallic iron synthesis using biochar obtained from the biomass residue of green microalgae Botryococcus sp. Hematite (Fe2O3) is one of the most important iron ore used in steelmaking industries. Thus, we proposed this work for the development of algal biorefinery concept at commercial scale. This work contains two phases; in the first phase, the alga was successfully cultivated on the domestic wastewater at large scale using a low-cost photobioreactor, which provided significant biomass and lipid yield. To reduce the cost involved in biomass harvesting, an auto-flocculation technique was implemented and harvested 94.8% of biomass without adding any flocculants. The biodiesel extraction was performed in an ultrasonic bath with a frequency of 25 kHz using a tungstated zirconia as a heterogeneous acid catalyst, which produced 94.1 wt% of biodiesel yield. The kinetic studies were investigated at various reaction temperature and confirmed that the reaction followed a pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The activation energy and pre-exponential factor for the transesterification reaction were found to be 45.3861 kJ mol−1 and 2.6956 min−1, respectively. In the second phase, the lipid extracted residue was converted to biochar through pyrolysis process, and the yield obtained was 41 wt%. The obtained biochar was utilized for metallic iron synthesis, and this reaction was carried out in a thermogravimetric analyzer equipped with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the reduction behaviors was occurred in a stepwise manner rendering to the temperature and the metallic iron synthesis was found at 990 °C.

AB - This study focused on a novel approach for biodiesel production and metallic iron synthesis using biochar obtained from the biomass residue of green microalgae Botryococcus sp. Hematite (Fe2O3) is one of the most important iron ore used in steelmaking industries. Thus, we proposed this work for the development of algal biorefinery concept at commercial scale. This work contains two phases; in the first phase, the alga was successfully cultivated on the domestic wastewater at large scale using a low-cost photobioreactor, which provided significant biomass and lipid yield. To reduce the cost involved in biomass harvesting, an auto-flocculation technique was implemented and harvested 94.8% of biomass without adding any flocculants. The biodiesel extraction was performed in an ultrasonic bath with a frequency of 25 kHz using a tungstated zirconia as a heterogeneous acid catalyst, which produced 94.1 wt% of biodiesel yield. The kinetic studies were investigated at various reaction temperature and confirmed that the reaction followed a pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The activation energy and pre-exponential factor for the transesterification reaction were found to be 45.3861 kJ mol−1 and 2.6956 min−1, respectively. In the second phase, the lipid extracted residue was converted to biochar through pyrolysis process, and the yield obtained was 41 wt%. The obtained biochar was utilized for metallic iron synthesis, and this reaction was carried out in a thermogravimetric analyzer equipped with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the reduction behaviors was occurred in a stepwise manner rendering to the temperature and the metallic iron synthesis was found at 990 °C.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85068443822&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85068443822&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.enconman.2019.06.069

DO - 10.1016/j.enconman.2019.06.069

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85068443822

VL - 196

SP - 1326

EP - 1334

JO - Energy Conversion and Management

JF - Energy Conversion and Management

SN - 0196-8904

ER -