The food industry generates enormous quantity of food waste (FW) either directly or indirectly including the processing sector, which turned into biofuels for waste remediation. Six types of food processing wastes (FPW) such as oil, fruit and vegetable, dairy, brewery, livestock and finally agriculture based materials that get treated via dark fermentation/anaerobic digestion has been discussed. Production of both hydrogen and methane is daunting for oil, fruit and vegetable processing wastes because of the presence of polyphenols and essential oils. Moreover, acidic pH and high protein are the reasons for increased concentration of ammonia and accumulation of volatile fatty acids in FPW, especially in dairy, brewery, and livestock waste streams. Moreover, the review brought to forefront the enhancing methods, (pretreatment and co-digestion) operational, and environmental parameters that can influence the production of biohythane. Finally, the nature of feedstock's role in achieving successful circular bio economy is also highlighted.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Mr. Yukesh Kannah R is grateful to CSIR, New Delhi, India for the award of Senior Research Fellowship (CSIR Direct SRF 09/468/0529).
© 2019 Elsevier Ltd
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Engineering
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Waste Management and Disposal