The design and ratio of the cortico-cancellous composition of allograft spacers are associated with graft-related problems, including subsidence and allograft spacer failure. Methods: The study analyzed stress distribution and risk of subsidence according to three types (cortical only, cortical cancellous, cortical lateral walls with a cancellous center bone) and three lengths (11, 12, 14 mm) of allograft spacers under the condition of hybrid motion control, including flexion, extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending,. A detailed finite element model of a previously validated, three-dimensional, intact C3-7 segment, with C5-6 segmental fusion using allograft spacers without fixation, was used in the present study. Findings: Among the three types of cervical allograft spacers evaluated, cortical lateral walls with a cancellous center bone exhibited the highest stress on the cortical bone of spacers, as well as the endplate around the posterior margin of the spacers. The likelihood of allograft spacer failure was highest for 14 mm spacers composed of cortical lateral walls with a cancellous center bone upon flexion (PVMS, 270.0 MPa; 250.2%) and extension (PVMS: 371.40 MPa, 344.2%). The likelihood of allograft spacer subsidence was also highest for the same spacers upon flexion (PVMS, 4.58 MPa; 28.1%) and extension (PVMS: 12.71 MPa, 78.0%). Conclusion: Cervical spacers with a smaller cortical component and of longer length can be risk factors for allograft spacer failure and subsidence, especially in flexion and extension. However, further study of additional fixation methods, such as anterior plates/screws and posterior screws, in an actual clinical setting is necessary.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was funded by NRF-2017R1C1B5017402.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Process Chemistry and Technology
- Computer Science Applications
- Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes