Biotoxicity assessment of pyrene in soil using a battery of biological assays

Muhammad Imran Khan, Sardar Alam Cheema, Xianjin Tang, Chaofeng Shen, Shahbaz Talib Sahi, Abdul Jabbar, Joonhong Park, Yingxu Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A test battery, composed of a range of biological assays, was applied to evaluate the ecological health of soil aged for 69 days and spiked with a range of pyrene levels (1.04, 8.99, 41.5, 72.6, 136, and 399 μg g-1 dry soil; Soxhlet-extracted concentrations after 69 days of aging). Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), earthworm (Eisenia fetida), and bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) were used as test organisms to represent different trophic levels. Among the acute ecotoxicity bioassays used, the V. fischeri luminescence inhibition assay was the most sensitive indicator of pyrene toxicity. We observed >8 % light inhibition at the lowest concentration (1.04 μg g-1) pyrene, and this inhibition increased to 60 % at 72.6 μg g-1. The sensitivity ranking for toxicity of the pyrene-contaminated soil in the present study was in the following decreasing order: root elongation of Chinese cabbage < earthworm mortality (14 days) < earthworm mortality (28 days) < luminescence inhibition (15 min) < luminescence inhibition (5 min). In addition, genotoxic effects of pyrene were also evaluated by using comet assay in E. fetida. The strong relationship between DNA damage and soil pyrene levels showed that comet assay is suitable for testing the genotoxicity of pyrene- polluted soil. In addition, tail moment was well correlated with soil pyrene levels (r2 = 0.99). Thus, tail moment may be the most informative DNA-damage parameter representing the results of comet assay. Based on these results, the earthworm DNA damage assay and Microtox test are rapid and sensitive bioassays and can be used to assess the risk of soil with low to high levels of hydrocarbon pollution. Furthermore, an analysis of the toxic effects at several trophic levels is essential for a more comprehensive understanding of the damage caused by highly contaminated soil.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)503-512
Number of pages10
JournalArchives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Volume63
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Nov 1

Fingerprint

Pyrene
Biological Assay
Oligochaeta
Assays
Soil
Soils
Comet Assay
Luminescence
Aliivibrio fischeri
DNA Damage
DNA
Bioassay
Brassica
Toxicity
Tail
Brassica rapa
Mortality
pyrene
Poisons
Hydrocarbons

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Toxicology
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

Khan, Muhammad Imran ; Cheema, Sardar Alam ; Tang, Xianjin ; Shen, Chaofeng ; Sahi, Shahbaz Talib ; Jabbar, Abdul ; Park, Joonhong ; Chen, Yingxu. / Biotoxicity assessment of pyrene in soil using a battery of biological assays. In: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2012 ; Vol. 63, No. 4. pp. 503-512.
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Biotoxicity assessment of pyrene in soil using a battery of biological assays. / Khan, Muhammad Imran; Cheema, Sardar Alam; Tang, Xianjin; Shen, Chaofeng; Sahi, Shahbaz Talib; Jabbar, Abdul; Park, Joonhong; Chen, Yingxu.

In: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol. 63, No. 4, 01.11.2012, p. 503-512.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AB - A test battery, composed of a range of biological assays, was applied to evaluate the ecological health of soil aged for 69 days and spiked with a range of pyrene levels (1.04, 8.99, 41.5, 72.6, 136, and 399 μg g-1 dry soil; Soxhlet-extracted concentrations after 69 days of aging). Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), earthworm (Eisenia fetida), and bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) were used as test organisms to represent different trophic levels. Among the acute ecotoxicity bioassays used, the V. fischeri luminescence inhibition assay was the most sensitive indicator of pyrene toxicity. We observed >8 % light inhibition at the lowest concentration (1.04 μg g-1) pyrene, and this inhibition increased to 60 % at 72.6 μg g-1. The sensitivity ranking for toxicity of the pyrene-contaminated soil in the present study was in the following decreasing order: root elongation of Chinese cabbage < earthworm mortality (14 days) < earthworm mortality (28 days) < luminescence inhibition (15 min) < luminescence inhibition (5 min). In addition, genotoxic effects of pyrene were also evaluated by using comet assay in E. fetida. The strong relationship between DNA damage and soil pyrene levels showed that comet assay is suitable for testing the genotoxicity of pyrene- polluted soil. In addition, tail moment was well correlated with soil pyrene levels (r2 = 0.99). Thus, tail moment may be the most informative DNA-damage parameter representing the results of comet assay. Based on these results, the earthworm DNA damage assay and Microtox test are rapid and sensitive bioassays and can be used to assess the risk of soil with low to high levels of hydrocarbon pollution. Furthermore, an analysis of the toxic effects at several trophic levels is essential for a more comprehensive understanding of the damage caused by highly contaminated soil.

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