Black hole mergers from dwarf to massive galaxies with the NewHorizon and Horizon-AGN simulations

Marta Volonteri, Hugo Pfister, Ricarda S. Beckmann, Yohan Dubois, Monica Colpi, Christopher J. Conselice, Massimo Dotti, Garreth Martin, Ryan Jackson, Katarina Kraljic, Christophe Pichon, Maxime Trebitsch, Sukyoung K. Yi, Julien Devriendt, Sébastien Peirani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Massive black hole (MBH) coalescences are powerful sources of low-frequency gravitational waves. To study these events in the cosmological context, we need to trace the large-scale structure and cosmic evolution of a statistical population of galaxies, from dim dwarfs to bright galaxies. To cover such a large range of galaxy masses, we analyse two complementary simulations: HORIZON-AGN with a large volume and low resolution that tracks the high-mass (> 107 M☉) MBH population, and NEWHORIZON with a smaller volume but higher resolution that traces the low-mass (< 107 M☉) MBH population. While HORIZON-AGN can be used to estimate the rate of inspirals for pulsar timing arrays, NEWHORIZON can investigate MBH mergers in a statistical sample of dwarf galaxies for LISA, which is sensitive to low-mass MBHs. We use the same method to analyse the two simulations, post-processing MBH dynamics to account for time delays mostly determined by dynamical friction and stellar hardening. In both simulations, MBHs typically merge long after galaxies do, so that the galaxy morphology at the time of the MBH merger is no longer determined by the structural disturbances engendered by the galaxy merger from which the MBH coalescence has originated. These time delays cause a loss of high-z MBH coalescences, shifting the peak of the MBH merger rate to z ∼ 1-2. This study shows how tracking MBH mergers in low-mass galaxies is crucial to probing the MBH merger rate for LISA and investigate the properties of the host galaxies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2219-2238
Number of pages20
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume498
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
ANR grant LYRICS (ANR-16-CE31-0011). HP is indebted to the Danish National Research Foundation (DNRF132) and the Hong Kong government (GRF grant HKU27305119) for support. RJ acknowledges support from the STFC [ST/R504786/1]. SKY acknowledges support from the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2020R1A2C3003769). MT is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) under Germany’s Excellence Strategy EXC 2181/1 - 390900948 (the Heidelberg STRUCTURES Excellence Cluster). This work was granted access to the HPC resources of CINES under the allocations 2013047012, 2014047012, 2015047012, c2016047637, A0020407637 made by GENCI and KSC-2017-G2-0003 by KISTI, and as a ‘Grand Challenge’ project granted by GENCI on the AMD-Rome extension of the Joliot Curie supercomputer at TGCC, and under the allocation 2019-A0070402192 made by GENCI. This work has made use of the Horizon Cluster hosted by Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris. We thank Stephane Rouberol for running smoothly this cluster for us.

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Centre national d’études spatiales (CNES) for the space mission LISA. The authors thank the anonymous referee for a constructive review. MV thanks Helvi Witek for stressing the importance of the mass ratio distribution of merging MBHs and Michael Tremmel for thoughtful comments. MV and MC would like to acknowledge networking support by the COST Action GWverse CA16104. This work was partially supported by the Segal grant ANR-19-CE31-0017 (www.secular-evolution.org) of the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche and by the

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Centre national d'?tudes spatiales (CNES) for the space mission LISA. The authors thank the anonymous referee for a constructive review. MV thanks Helvi Witek for stressing the importance of the mass ratio distribution of merging MBHs and Michael Tremmel for thoughtful comments. MV and MC would like to acknowledge networking support by the COST Action GWverse CA16104. This work was partially supported by the Segal grant ANR-19-CE31-0017 (www.secular-evolution.org) of the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche and by the ANR grant LYRICS (ANR-16-CE31-0011). HP is indebted to the Danish National Research Foundation (DNRF132) and the Hong Kong government (GRF grant HKU27305119) for support. RJ acknowledges support from the STFC [ST/R504786/1]. SKY acknowledges support from the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2020R1A2C3003769). MT is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) under Germany's Excellence Strategy EXC 2181/1 - 390900948 (the Heidelberg STRUCTURES Excellence Cluster). This work was granted access to the HPC resources of CINES under the allocations 2013047012, 2014047012, 2015047012, c2016047637, A0020407637 made by GENCI and KSC-2017-G2-0003 by KISTI, and as a 'Grand Challenge' project granted by GENCI on the AMD-Rome extension of the Joliot Curie supercomputer at TGCC, and under the allocation 2019-A0070402192 made by GENCI. This work has made use of the Horizon Cluster hosted by Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris. We thank Stephane Rouberol for running smoothly this cluster for us.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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