Semiconductor devices rely on the charge and spin of electrons, but there is another electronic degree of freedom called pseudospin in a two-level quantum system1 such as a crystal consisting of two sublattices2. A potential way to exploit the pseudospin of electrons in pseudospintronics3–5 is to find quantum matter with tunable and sizeable pseudospin polarization. Here, we propose a bipolar pseudospin semiconductor, where the electron and hole states have opposite net pseudospin polarization. We experimentally identify such states in anisotropic honeycomb crystal—black phosphorus. By sublattice interference of photoelectrons, we find bipolar pseudospin polarization greater than 95% that is stable at room temperature. This pseudospin polarization is identified as a consequence of Dirac cones merged in the highly anisotropic honeycomb system6,7. The bipolar pseudospin semiconductor, which is a pseudospin analogue of magnetic semiconductors, is not only interesting in itself, but also might be useful for pseudospintronics.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering