We evaluated the effects of red ginseng consumption on blood pressure (BP) and the fasting plasma metabolome. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study included nonobese, nondiabetic, prehypertensive subjects consuming 10 capsules daily containing 5 g red ginseng (n=31) or placebo (n=31). Fasting plasma metabolome profiles were obtained using ultra performance liquid chromatography-linear trap quadrupole Orbitrap MS. After 12 weeks, participants consuming red ginseng showed reductions of 6.5 and 5.0 mm Hg in systolic and diastolic BP, respectively. Compared with controls, those consuming red ginseng showed greater reductions in changed values of systolic BP, diastolic BP and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 (Lp-PLA 2) activity, after adjusting for baseline values. In addition, the red ginseng group showed a greater increase in dihydrobiopterin levels and greater decrease in palmitic amide and lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPCs). The change in diastolic BP positively correlated with changes in lysoPCs and Lp-PLA 2 activity. The BP-lowering effect of red ginseng is associated with decreased Lp-PLA 2 and lysoPCs and increased dihydrobiopterin levels in prehypertensive subjects (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02326766).
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank the research volunteers who participated in the studies and the technical assistants of the Yonsei Center for Research Facilities for assistance with LC-MS (LTQ Orbitrap (micro-LC)) analyses. This research was supported by the Bio and Medical Technology Development Program (NRF-2012M3A9C4048762) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning, Republic of Korea
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Internal Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine