Boundary layer versus free tropospheric submicron particle formation: A case study from NASA DC-8 observations in the Asian continental outflow during the KORUS-AQ campaign

Do Hyeon Park, Chaeyoon Cho, Hyeonmin Kim, Rokjin J. Park, Bruce Anderson, Taehyoung Lee, Greg L. Huey, Paul O. Wennberg, Andrew J. Weinheimer, Seong Soo Yum, Russell Long, Sang Woo Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

In this study, we contrasted major secondary inorganic species and processes responsible for submicron particle formation (SPF) events in the boundary layer (BL) and free troposphere (FT) over the Korean Peninsula during Korea-United States Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) campaign (May–June 2016) using aircraft observations. The number concentration of ultrafine particles with diameters between 3 nm and 10 nm (NCN310) during the entire KORUS-AQ period reached a peak (7606 ± 12,003 cm−3) at below 1 km altitude, implying that the particle formation around the Korean Peninsula primarily occurred in the daytime BL. During the BL SPF case (7 May 2016), the SPF over Seoul metropolitan area was more attributable to oxidation of NO2 rather than SO2-to-sulfate conversion. From the analysis of the relationship between nitrogen oxidation ratio (NOR) and temperature or relative humidity (RH), NOR showed a positive correlation only with temperature. This suggests that homogeneous gas-phase reactions of NO2 with OH or O3 contributed to nitrate formation. From the relationship between NCN310 (> 10,000 cm−3) and the NOR (or sulfur oxidation ratio) at Olympic Park in Seoul during the entire KORUS-AQ period, it was regarded that the relative importance of nitrogen oxidation was grown as the NCN310 increased. During the FT SPF case (31 May 2016) over the yellow sea, the SO2-to-sulfate conversion seemed to influence SPF highly. The sulfate/CO ratio had a positive correlation with both the temperature and RH, suggesting that aqueous-phase pathways as well as gas-phase reactions might be attributable to sulfate formation in the FT. In particular, FT SPF event on 31 May was possibly caused by the direct transport of SO2 precursors from the continent above the shallow marine boundary layer under favorable conditions for FT SPF events, such as decreased aerosol surface area and increased solar radiation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105857
JournalAtmospheric Research
Volume264
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Dec 15

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors are grateful to the NASA DC-8 pilots and crew, and to all members of the KORUS-AQ science team for their contributions during the field campaign and the agencies operating the surface networks. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT)(No. NRF-2021R1A4A5032320).

Funding Information:
The authors are grateful to the NASA DC-8 pilots and crew, and to all members of the KORUS-AQ science team for their contributions during the field campaign and the agencies operating the surface networks. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT)(No. NRF- 2021R1A4A5032320 ).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Atmospheric Science

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