Focal malformations of cortical development (FMCDs), including focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and hemimegalencephaly (HME), are major etiologies of pediatric intractable epilepsies exhibiting cortical dyslamination. Brain somatic mutations in MTOR have recently been identified as a major genetic cause of FMCDs. However, the molecular mechanism by which these mutations lead to cortical dyslamination remains poorly understood. Here, using patient tissue, genome-edited cells, and mouse models with brain somatic mutations in MTOR, we discovered that disruption of neuronal ciliogenesis by the mutations underlies cortical dyslamination in FMCDs. We found that abnormal accumulation of OFD1 at centriolar satellites due to perturbed autophagy was responsible for the defective neuronal ciliogenesis. Additionally, we found that disrupted neuronal ciliogenesis accounted for cortical dyslamination in FMCDs by compromising Wnt signals essential for neuronal polarization. Altogether, this study describes a molecular mechanism by which brain somatic mutations in MTOR contribute to the pathogenesis of cortical dyslamination in FMCDs. Park et al. demonstrate that brain somatic mutations in MTOR result in defective neuronal ciliogenesis in FMCDs. The aberrant accumulation of OFD1 by impaired autophagy is responsible for defective ciliogenesis. Moreover, defective ciliogenesis accounts for cortical dyslamination in FMCDs by compromising Wnt signals.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by grants from the Korean Health Technology R&D Project , Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea ( H15C3143 and H16C0415 to J.H.L.); Suh Kyungbae Foundation (to J.H.L.); Citizens United for Research in Epilepsy (to J.H.L.); the NIH ( AR054396 and GM095941 to J.F.R.); and IBS-R002-D1 (to J.H.L.).
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