Branching patterns of the infraorbital nerve and topography within the infraorbital space

Kyung-Seok Hu, Hyun Ho Kwak, Wu Chul Song, Hyun Joo Kang, Hyeon Cheol Kim, Christian Fontaine, Heejin Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

28 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The infraorbital nerve (ION) is the terminal branch of the maxillary nerve; it supplies the skin and mucous membranes of the middle portion of the face. This nerve is vulnerable to injury during surgical procedures of the middle face. Severe pain and loss of sense are noted in patients whose infraorbital nerve is damaged. In the study presented here, we investigated the branching pattern and topography of the ION, about which little is currently known, by dissecting 43 hemifaces of Korean cadavers. In most cases, the infraorbital artery was located in the middle (73.8%) and superficial to the ION bundle (73.8%) at its exit from the infraorbital canal. The ION produced four main branches, the inferior palpebral, internal nasal, external nasal, and superior labial branches. The superior labial branch was the largest branch of the ION produced the most sub-branches. These sub-branches were divided into the medial and lateral branches depending upon the area that they supplied. We were able to classify four types of branching pattern of the external and internal nasal branch and the medial and lateral sub-branches of the superior labial branch of the ION at the site of their emergence through the infraorbital foramen (types I-IV). Type I, where all four branches are separated occurred the most frequently (42.1%). These findings will help to preserve the ION while performing certain types of maxillofacial surgery, such as removal of a tumor from the upper jaw and fracture of the upper jaw.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1111-1115
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Craniofacial Surgery
Volume17
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2006 Jan 1

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Lip
Nose
Maxilla
Maxillary Nerve
Oral Surgery
Intraoperative Complications
Eyelids
Cadaver
Mucous Membrane
Arteries
Pain
Skin
Neoplasms

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology

Cite this

Hu, Kyung-Seok ; Kwak, Hyun Ho ; Song, Wu Chul ; Kang, Hyun Joo ; Kim, Hyeon Cheol ; Fontaine, Christian ; Kim, Heejin. / Branching patterns of the infraorbital nerve and topography within the infraorbital space. In: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery. 2006 ; Vol. 17, No. 6. pp. 1111-1115.
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abstract = "The infraorbital nerve (ION) is the terminal branch of the maxillary nerve; it supplies the skin and mucous membranes of the middle portion of the face. This nerve is vulnerable to injury during surgical procedures of the middle face. Severe pain and loss of sense are noted in patients whose infraorbital nerve is damaged. In the study presented here, we investigated the branching pattern and topography of the ION, about which little is currently known, by dissecting 43 hemifaces of Korean cadavers. In most cases, the infraorbital artery was located in the middle (73.8{\%}) and superficial to the ION bundle (73.8{\%}) at its exit from the infraorbital canal. The ION produced four main branches, the inferior palpebral, internal nasal, external nasal, and superior labial branches. The superior labial branch was the largest branch of the ION produced the most sub-branches. These sub-branches were divided into the medial and lateral branches depending upon the area that they supplied. We were able to classify four types of branching pattern of the external and internal nasal branch and the medial and lateral sub-branches of the superior labial branch of the ION at the site of their emergence through the infraorbital foramen (types I-IV). Type I, where all four branches are separated occurred the most frequently (42.1{\%}). These findings will help to preserve the ION while performing certain types of maxillofacial surgery, such as removal of a tumor from the upper jaw and fracture of the upper jaw.",
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Branching patterns of the infraorbital nerve and topography within the infraorbital space. / Hu, Kyung-Seok; Kwak, Hyun Ho; Song, Wu Chul; Kang, Hyun Joo; Kim, Hyeon Cheol; Fontaine, Christian; Kim, Heejin.

In: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, Vol. 17, No. 6, 01.01.2006, p. 1111-1115.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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N2 - The infraorbital nerve (ION) is the terminal branch of the maxillary nerve; it supplies the skin and mucous membranes of the middle portion of the face. This nerve is vulnerable to injury during surgical procedures of the middle face. Severe pain and loss of sense are noted in patients whose infraorbital nerve is damaged. In the study presented here, we investigated the branching pattern and topography of the ION, about which little is currently known, by dissecting 43 hemifaces of Korean cadavers. In most cases, the infraorbital artery was located in the middle (73.8%) and superficial to the ION bundle (73.8%) at its exit from the infraorbital canal. The ION produced four main branches, the inferior palpebral, internal nasal, external nasal, and superior labial branches. The superior labial branch was the largest branch of the ION produced the most sub-branches. These sub-branches were divided into the medial and lateral branches depending upon the area that they supplied. We were able to classify four types of branching pattern of the external and internal nasal branch and the medial and lateral sub-branches of the superior labial branch of the ION at the site of their emergence through the infraorbital foramen (types I-IV). Type I, where all four branches are separated occurred the most frequently (42.1%). These findings will help to preserve the ION while performing certain types of maxillofacial surgery, such as removal of a tumor from the upper jaw and fracture of the upper jaw.

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