Although “agility” is a popular term today, an understanding of its meaning and key components is lacking. The term “agile government” has been increasingly used in various studies and reports but remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to review agile government studies, overcome the various new challenges against such trends, and identify possibilities of building an effective agile government. First, business agility studies and agile development methods are reviewed, followed by an overview of agile government studies and an evaluation of the present and future uses for agile governments. Finally, this paper identifies various challenges and suggests new tasks toward a more agile government based on the reviews.