Background: Evidence is accumulating that Staphylococcus aureus plays an important role as a disease modifier in upper and lower airway disease. We aimed to assess the association of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) with allergic multimorbidity as well as the severity of chronic rhinosinusitis. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 97 subjects aged 6 years or older between March 2018 and June 2019 and analysed symptom scores, computed tomography scores, serum IgE levels to SEs, serum total and specific IgE levels to inhalant allergens. To evaluate eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS), we used refractory ECRS score from the Japanese epidemiological survey. Results: Of the 97 patients enrolled, 29 (29.9%) were non-sensitised, 33 (34.0%) were mono-sensitised, and 35 (36.1%) were poly-sensitised. Sensitisation to SEs was closely associated with poly-sensitisation to inhalant allergens. SE-sensitised participants had higher median values for total and specific IgE levels to inhalant allergens than did non-SE-sensitised participants. SE sensitisation was associated with allergic multimorbidity and severe allergic diseases, such as ECRS. Conclusions: This preliminary study suggested that sensitisation to SEs may play a role in the initiation of type-2 inflammatory responses, such as allergic rhinitis, ECRS, and allergic multimorbidity. Furthermore, sensitisation to SEs correlated with the severity of ECRS.
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