Background The effectiveness of dialysis on the incidence of cancer in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) remains to be clarified. In this study, we evaluated the incidence rate and type of cancer among patients with ESRD, compared to the general population, through a prospective 7-year follow-up. We also calculated the cumulative incidence rate of cancer associated with ESRD, with stratification to control for the competing risk of death. Methods This prospective observational cohort study was conducted using data from a nationwide study on patients with ESRD in Korea. A total of 5,235 patients, 18 years old, with ESRD were identified from the national registry as being treated by dialysis between August 2008 and December 2014. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) and cumulative incidence rate of specific cancers were evaluated and compared to the general population. Results A total of 5,235 participants were included. During the 7 year observation period, 116 (2.2%) participants had been diagnosed as cancer. The SIR of overall cancer was 0.94 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.72–1.19] and was comparable to the rate for the general population. Although the digestive organs were the most frequent site of a primary site cancer (N = 39, 33.6%), the SIR was highest for urinary tract cancer [4.7, 95% CI, 2.42–8.19]. The five year standardized cumulative incidence of cancer was higher for females than for males, and for non-diabetic compared to diabetic causes of ESRD. We estimated that the five year standardized cumulative incidence was highest [8.4, 95% CI, 5.07–13.75] in patients with ESRD, caused by glomerulonephritis. Conclusion A screening program should be necessary for urinary tract cancer in Korean patients with ESRD. Cancer screening programs for patients with ESRD in Korea should be emphasized on female patients and patients with non-diabetic ESRD.
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© 2017 Yoo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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