Metallic glass (MG) assists electrical contact of screen-printed silver electrodes and leads to comparable electrode performance to that of electroplated electrodes. For high electrode performance, MG needs to be infiltrated into nanometer-scale cavities between Ag particles and reacts with them. Here, we show that the MG in the supercooled state can fill the gap between Ag particles within a remarkably short time due to capillary effect. The flow behavior of the MG is revealed by computational fluid dynamics and density funtional theory simulation. Also, we suggest the formation mechanism of the Ag electrodes, and demonstrate the criteria of MG for higher electrode performance. Consequently, when Al 85 Ni 5 Y 8 Co 2 MG is added in the Ag electrodes, cell efficiency is enhanced up to 20.30% which is the highest efficiency reported so far for screen-printed interdigitated back contact solar cells. These results show the possibility for the replacement of electroplating process to screen-printing process.
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Acknowledgements We are grateful to Susanne Aamand for valuable suggestions and help in finding a suitable gradient system for HPLC analysis, to Peter Chapman and Jim Mueller, who were involved in the early stages of this study, to Wolfgang Streber, Victoria Shingler, Ronald Olsen and Daryl Dwyer for providing bacterial strains and to Victor de-Lorenzo for his advice. The Danish Center of Microbial Ecology is acknowledged for financial support to Søren J. Sørensen and Tamar Barkay.
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